Thesis submitted by Kuldeep Kumar Kushwah
Towards the partial fulfilment of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY (YOGA)
UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF T. M. Srinivasan, Ph.D., D.Sc. H. R. Nagendra, Ph.D., D.Sc. Swami
Vivekananda Yoga Anusandhana Samsthana (SVYASA) (Deemed University) # 19, Eknath Bhavan, Gavipuram Circle Kempe Gowda Nagar, Bangalore, 56019 Website: www.svyasa.org
Yoga based techniques are extensively used as a lifestyle strategy for both
prevention and management of various ailments across India/world. Energy
homeostasis is the key essence of a healthy life. Investigation of the energy
homeostasis accomplished through integrated yoga practices is needed.
Electro photonic imaging (EPI) technique is growing as a novel technique of health
assessment. It is being utilized in the fields of alternative medicine, conventional
medicine, psycho-physiology, psychology and consciousness studies. The existing
EPI norms are mostly based on European population. In order to enhance practice
and research through EPI in India, there is a need for developing EPI norms for the
healthy Indian population.
In the literary review, the references of Prāṇa and Prāṇamaya kośa have been
drawn to support a theoretical model which explains the dynamic nature of Prāṇa
in living beings. This model includes supportive evidence from the experiments
conducted in the present study.
In the scientific literature review, four domains of scientific studies were reviewed
1) Various studies conducted to find out EPI patterns in various populations mostly
in clinical area, 2) Studies investigating effect of yoga, meditation and some healing
techniques through EPI/GDV, 3) Cyclic Meditation investigations, and 4) Studies
through Integrated Yoga Module.
Findings revealed that there is a need to develop EPI norms for healthy Indian
population and also a need for an objective instrument to study the effect of yoga
based interventions on bio-energy dimensions.
The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of Integrated Yoga Practices on
Healthy volunteers using Electro Photonic Imaging (EPI).
The objectives of this study are four fold: a) to explore the relation between EPI
and Präëamaya kośa, b) to develop normative data of EPI for healthy Indian
population, c) to investigate the effect of Cyclic Meditation on stress and health
indices in managers using EPI and, d) to explore the effect of a four week Integrated
Yoga Module (IYM) on stress, general health index and disorderliness (in the
human energy system) in healthy population, using EPI.
Study 1) Prāṇamaya Kośa Study
To carry out the experiments, healthy live leaves in a flower pot and dry dead
leaves were chosen. We used four different species of plants for the experiments.
Study 2) Normative Data Study
A total of 1297 volunteers from different parts of India were assessed once, spread
over 12 months. Among them, 880 volunteers were reported to be healthy (age
Mean±SD, 33.55±10.92), with 584 males (age Mean±SD, 33.54±10.86) and 296
females (age Mean±SD, 33.56±11.00).
Study 3) Cyclic Meditation VS Supine Rest Study
EPI technique was used to assess subjects before and after 35 min of Cyclic
Meditation (CM) and equal duration of supine rest (SR) sessions. A total of 66 male
managers (CM = 33and SR = 33), age ranging from 35 to 60 years (mean ± standard
deviation 53.97 ±5.96 years), were included in the study.
Study-4) Integrated Yoga Module (IYM)
94 healthy volunteers (male 55 and female 39, age Mean±SD 26.70±8.58) were
assessed before and after four weeks of an IYM, utilizing the Electro Photonic
Imaging (EPI) technique.
Activation Coefficient (stress level), Integral Area (general health) and Integral
Entropy (disorderliness) parameters were analysed in studies 2-4.
1. Whole leaf versus cut leaf videos
2. Live leaf versus dead leaf and dead wet leaf videos
A survey design was adopted for the second project
Two-group comparative design
A single arm prospective study
In the present study, EPI Pro and EPI Compact devices produced by Kirlionics
Technologies International, Saint-Petersburg, Russia were used for the
EPI/GDV Diagram Software Program was used for data extraction. This provides
EPI parameters, viz; Activation Coefficient, Integral Area and Integral Entropy.
Data analysis was carried out using R statistical package.
Study 1) Observations showed, the Phantom Leaf Effect (PLE) occurs mostly due
to moisture. When measured with various time intervals, the results demonstrated
that live leaves have high and dynamic Electro Photonic (EP) emission, wet dead
leaves have low and constant EP emission and dry dead leaves have no EP
Study 2) As the data were not normally distributed, quartile based statistics was
used for setting the norms. The 25th and 75thpercentiles were calculated and they
were further verified using bootstrap procedure. Uniquely, the results showed a
clear difference in integral area parameters under both with-filter (physiological)
and without-filter (psycho-physiological) conditions among the Indian and the
Study 3) CM produced a highly significant reduction in stress level, whereas this
reduction was not found in SR group. There was a significant improvement in
health index, (IA values), both left and right sides within the CM group while only
IA in right side showed a significant improvement within the SR group. The IE
value on the right side decreased significantly within the CM group, whereas IE on
the left deteriorated within the SR group. In addition, only IE on left side has shown
a significant difference between the groups.
Study 4) Decrease in stress, increase in general health and decrease in left entropy
parameters were found reproducible in all four experiments. The results also
revealed a highly significant reduction in stress levels and highly significant
improvement in health indices at the psycho-physiological level.
Anticipated phantom leaf effect was not reproduced and mostly it seems to be just
a moisture effect. Some of the EPI norms for Indian population were found different
from European norms. Both CM and IYM interventions have demonstrated
effectiveness in reducing stress level and improvement in health indices.
Full text: 2016 Yoga Thesis Kuldeep PhD